According to India TB Report 2022, there is an increase in tuberculosis patients by 19 % compared to the last year. In the year, 2021 there were 4.93 lakhs of deaths due to tuberculosis. Along with lack of proper healthcare facilities, factors like HIV, diabetes, alcohol, malnutrition, tobacco and smoking are the comorbidities that affect a person suffering from Tuberculosis.
In the year 2021 about 21,35,830 patients were diagnosed with Tuberculosis, and only 20,30,509 patients were put on Tuberculosis-related treatment. About 4-10% of the patients passed away due to Tuberculosis, as they were not able to receive any treatment.
Talking about the affected population ratio in India, 6% of the cases of Tuberculosis in India are pediatric patients, 61% are male and the females constituted 39%. In 2021, the prevalence of all forms of TB was 312 per lakh population in India, and Delhi has the maximum prevalence with 747 cases per lakh while the lowermost was in Gujarat with 137 per lakh population.
About 65% of patients affected with Tuberculosis do not opt for treatment and ignore their symptoms as per the data provided by National TB Prevalence Survey 2019-2021. This leads to huge economic burden on the national and high mortality rate of the people affected with this disease. Tuberculosis during childhood remains a huge problem in India, and it contributes to around 31% of the planet’s burden.
Why is India bearing the burden of these infections? In addition, will the government be able to meet its goal of eliminating Tuberculosis in the coming 5 years?
Poverty and financial burden are one of the biggest factors that lead to delayed treatment and poor treatment outcomes. People are dying because of a failing support system that needs to provide them with preventive therapy, diagnosis tools, and treatments they need.
Detection of Tuberculosis
The tuberculosis can be transmitted from one person to another through air. People nearby may inhale TB germs into their lungs when a TB patient coughs, talks, laughs, sings, or sneezes. Although TB most often affects the lungs, it may also affect the brain, spine, or kidneys.
A person may carry the TB bacterium in their body without becoming ill. It’s known as a latent TB infection. Latent TB infection does not cause symptoms or the ability to transmit the TB bacterium to others. Latent TB infection may lead to TB disease in some cases. People who have TB disease may feel ill, be contagious, and exhibit symptoms such as fever, night sweats, coughing, and weight loss.
Skin test for Tuberculosis (TST)
The Mantoux tuberculin skin test determines if a person has TB bacteria on their skin.
Blood Test for Tuberculosis
An IGRA is a blood test that can detect if someone has TB bacteria in their system. An IGRA analyzes a person’s blood in a lab to see how well their immune system responds to TB germs.
Latent TB Infection or TB Disease Diagnosis
If a person is found to be infected with TB bacteria, other tests are needed to see if the person has TB disease. A medical history, physical exam, chest X-ray, and other laboratory testing may all be performed to identify TB disease.
Chest X-ray for Detecting Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis infection causes inflammation, growth within tissue, the formation of tubercles and even the death of tissues. The chest X-rays help detect multiple light areas or opacities of varying sizes that run together. It also detects cavities within these light areas, and identifies chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic pulmonary histiocytosis, and chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is making a comeback with new resistant strains that are difficult to treat, and, if left untreated, can also affect other organs.
In order to get rid of tuberculosis, we are helping the majority of people by offering X-ray screening with affordable handheld, mobile, and fixed X-ray devices at PHCs, CHCs, and sub-centers to provide “last mile” screening.
The AI and PACS-supported systems offer a first line of screening. Then, based on the X-ray results, the clinician can screen out patients who are not at risk for tuberculosis.
People who are detected as positive, their samples must be collected and sent to testing centres for confirmation. Patients tested positive must get medical help right away to make sure they get better.
The information provided in this article is for education purpose. If one is experiencing any symptoms they must consult a healthcare professional and must avoid self-diagnosis and treatment. Trivitron Healthcare is not liable for people opting for self-diagnosis and treatment. The statistical data is taken from https://tbcindia.gov.in/WriteReadData/IndiaTBReport2022/TBAnnaulReport2022.pdf and National TB Prevalence Survey of India 2019-2022