Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a commonly performed laboratory test on a blood or urine sample utilizing the antibody specificity as well as the sensitivity of enzyme assays. It is a technique that helps in the detection and quantification of biomolecules such as antibodies, peptides, proteins, and hormones. There are three ways to perform ELISA: Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA, Indirect ELISA, and Competitive ELISA. These bring about a wide variety of applications in different areas including forensic, food, and clinical research. Keep reading to know about the different uses of ELISA kits in healthcare.
Early-stage cancers like ovarian and breast cancer can be tested clinically using ELISA-based techniques. It is possible by identifying and measuring cancer or tumor biomarkers that are detected in the body in response to cancer growth and development. Over the years, clinical researchers have identified several established tumor protein markers associated with specific types of cancer such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK), and many others. Such markers can even be used clinically to determine cancer aggressiveness and in monitoring the response of the disease to different treatments.
The patient’s urine sample can be tested for concentrations of most familiar illicit drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, cannabinoids, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone using ELISA. Not only them but ELISA kits can also be used to monitor the levels of some pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients being treated. For instance, the antidrug antibodies in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
In pregnancy testing, the doctors usually check for elevated levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the patient’s urine sample. ELISA is usually performed to detect this hormone which is higher in pregnant women. Thus, women can easily check their pregnancy even at home using ELISA kits.
4.Detection of Viral Infections
In developing countries where the rates of viral infections are high, ELISA testing can benefit as it can help detect viruses such as HIV, New Castle Disease Virus (NDV), and West Nile Virus. ELISA kits can be used for opportunistic testing like at the Emergency Department and reach the most vulnerable groups because of their on-site testing abilities and immediate results.
For positive HIV infection, the ELISA test can detect human serum Cystatin C. To check for West Nile Virus infection, the patient serum or cerebrospinal fluid sample collected after 8-21 days of having symptoms is tested by IgM antibody capture (MAC) ELISA. This test also helps in confirming whether the infection has progressed to the central nervous system of the patient. ELISA can even help identify any NDV-infected flocks ranging from most lethal to increasingly less severe strains and aid in the coordination of vaccination programs for people suffering from this avian viral infection. To know more about HIV ELISA Kits in India visit https://www.trivitron.com/products/infectious-disease/elisa-tests.
5.Diagnosis of Patients Suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
ELISA kits can be used to detect platelet antibodies in the serum sample of such patients. These kits involve the use of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (labeled as anti-human IgG). It is an affordable method of testing in comparison to platelet immunofluorescence test and lymphocytotoxicity.