How has ELISA Technology Changed the Diagnostic Industry?
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technology is a vital diagnostic tool in plant and medical pathology and research as it is crucial in identifying diseases and disorders. The technology can also be employed in the food industry for quality control purposes.
ELISA is a laboratory test that helps detect and quantify biomolecules like antibodies and antigens in a given sample. This biochemical technique is used widely in fields such as immunology, microbiology, veterinary medicine, and blood screening. ELISA relies on specific antibodies to bind to the target antigen, and a detection system is then employed to determine the presence and quantity of the bound antigen.
What are the Different Types of ELISA Techniques?
1. Direct ELISA
A direct ELISA involves the immobilization of an antigen or a sample on a plate with a conjugated detection antibody binding to the target protein. A substrate is then applied, thereby producing a signal that is proportional to the quantity of analyte in the sample. Direct ELISA is less specific than a sandwich ELISA as only one antibody is utilized.
2. Indirect ELISA
Similar to a direct ELISA, an indirect ELISA involves the immobilization of an antigen on a plate. This technique involves an additional amplification detection step that involves the usage of a secondary antibody that binds to a target antigen. The substrate is then applied, producing a signal proportional to the amount of antigen bound in the well.
3. Sandwich ELISA
This technique involves the initial binding of a “capture” antibody to a well. When a sample is added, only the proteins/antigen that can be recognized by the antibody are captured or trapped. Finally, a secondary detection antibody is used to detect and identify the bound protein.
4. Competitive ELISA
In competitive ELISA, the primary antibody is mixed with the sample, forming a complex. After the complex settles down, a secondary antibody is added to the wells. The primary antibody can only be recognised if the antigen is not already bound to it. Therefore, the secondary antibody competes with the antigen for binding.
The Role of ELISA in Healthcare:
With high sensitivity and specificity, the ELISA technique offers more accurate results than other immunoassay techniques. ELISA does not rely on radioisotopes or expensive radiation counters for detection. However, it does require precise micropipettes, an incubator for optimal temperature control, a washing system to remove unbound substances, and a microplate spectrophotometer reader for accurate measurements and analysis.
ELISA technique can be used for screening early-stage ovarian and breast cancer. The technique helps in identifying and measuring tumours or cancer biomarkers in the body that are responsible for the growth and development of cancer.
ELISA can be employed to test the concentration of various illicit drugs like cocaine, opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methadone, and benzodiazepines from a patient’s urine sample. ELISA kits can also be utilized to monitor the levels of certain pharmaceutical drugs in patients undergoing treatment. For instance, they can detect the presence of antidrug antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
During pregnancy, women get their urine samples tested to determine the levels of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone. ELISA kits also aid in detecting viruses such as West Nile Virus, New Castle Disease Virus (NDV), HIV, and Hepatitis. The measuring technique also helps in detecting platelet antibodies in the serum of patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
Trivitron Healthcare’s ELISA Kits for Precise Diagnosis:
Trivitron’s HIV Ag-Ab ELISA Kit is an in-vitro diagnostic immunoassay designed for the qualitative detection of antigens and antibodies to HIV-1, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma. This 4th generation kit is used to screen donated blood samples, thereby helping to identify and eliminate potentially infected units of blood. It is also utilized for clinical diagnostic testing purposes.
This immunoassay kit is used to detect Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) in human serum or plasma. This kit incorporates a unique blend of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, enhancing sensitivity and accuracy in HBsAg detection.
This immunoassay kit is designed for the detection of antibodies against HCV in human serum or plasma. With its ability to provide accurate and sensitive results, ELISA has revolutionized the field of diagnostics, contributing to improved healthcare outcomes and ensuring the safety and well-being of individuals. As technology continues to advance, ELISA is likely to remain a cornerstone in diagnostic practices, continually evolving to meet the ever-growing demands of the medical and scientific communities.