Complete blood count (CBC) is the primary screening to gather critical information about blood and its components. The vital role of this test is to diagnose a particular disease and to throw light upon the current disease condition. This allows healthcare practitioners to diagnose patients effectively, thereby advising the accurate treatment. Diagnostic tests such as CBC are considered as a first line of defence to stop the spread of many diseases and to help physicians to treat patients at early stage of any disease.
What is the CBC test?
The human body is composed of many cells, they group to form organs. But few cells functions individually and performs their activities inside body fluids such as blood. By monitoring the status of these cells, gives in-depth information about certain related disorders.
This test involves use of advanced instruments to analyze the blood parameters to give accurate results.
It mainly calculates the levels of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelets, Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct).
Why CBC test is performed?
- Regular Medical Check-up : this test may be recommended to evaluate the health status and to gather basic information
- Screening for a disease : if a person shows symptoms such as fever, fatigue, inflammation etc; he can be suggested to go for the test to check for any disease or infection
- Monitoring existing disease condition : sometimes doctors need to monitor blood parameters to check the recovery from a disease or to check the existing disease condition
- Checking side-effects of any disorder :many side effects are internal which are left undiagnosed, this test helps to gather information if a treatment like radiation or chemotherapy is affecting any blood cells.
What are the Results of CBC test means?
CBC test calculates the high and low levels of blood cell counts which may indicate variety of disease conditions. In order to diagnose a specific disease, related specialized tests are recommended.
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Hemoglobin is present in red blood cells that carries oxygen from lungs to rest of the parts of body, therefore it is vital to monitor the levels of red blood cells. Red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit are related and if the levels of these three are below the normal range, it might be because of anemia, bleeding or lack of nutrients.
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Low white blood cell count signifies medical condition like autoimmune disorder that destroys WBCs. Other reasons of abnormal WBC counts are due to infection, inflammation, allergies etc.
The abnormal levels of platelet counts are due to medical issues or the side effect of certain treatment or medication. Thrombocytopenia is known for low levels of platelet while thrombocytosis results due to increase in number of WBCs.
The best way is to approach medical practitioner to gain in depth analysis of your CBC test. Based on the CBC readings, your doctor may further recommend specialized tests to diagnose a disease or may prescribe medication to normalize the levels of CBC.