Oligonucleotides are single-stranded nucleic acid polymers that are used in research, disease diagnosis, and, more recently, therapeutics. An oligonucleotide is composed of a short chain of genetic information that is built from single nucleotide units and these building blocks encompass a five-carbon sugar unit, a nitrogenous base such as adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanidine (G), thymine (T) or uracil (U) and a phosphate group and that is consistent in all nucleotides.
The widespread availability of synthetic single-stranded DNA and RNA has also paved the way for routine PCR-based DNA amplification. Furthermore, the use of oligonucleotides as primers has revolutionized the study of gene expression and disease processes, allowing for the characterization, tracking, and measurement of anything involving nucleic acids.
Oligonucleotides are also used as probes in microarray, in-situ hybridization, antisense analyses, as well as drug carriers. Oligos can be unmodified or modified depending on their intended use, such as ligation or block extension, characterizing with fluorophores and quenchers for use as probes, incorporation of amino and other reactive moieties to allow covalent coupling of functional molecules such as enzymes, and extension with other linkers and spacers of varying functionality.
Since oligonucleotides can be used to regulate gene expression, they are becoming more popular in the fight against the disease. They possess chemical properties that are considerably distinct from conventional small molecule drugs, making them a promising drug candidate. Oligotherapeutic interfere with disease transmission by targeting mRNA rather than proteins, making them a unique prospect in the fight against numerous diseases.
Oligonucleotides come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they have a wide range of uses in molecular biology. They are also utilized in the treatment of complex diseases in humans, such as neuromuscular disorders and infectious diseases.
Factors Influencing Oligonucleotide Synthesis Demand and Increasing Market
- The oligonucleotide synthesis market is divided into three segments based on application: therapeutic, research, and diagnostic. The therapeutic applications segment held the largest share of the oligonucleotide synthesis market in 2020. The rapidly increasing use of oligos as therapeutics like the antisense oligos and siRNA in the treatment of neurological, infectious, and rare genetic disorders is expected to drive market growth.
- Hospitals, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, diagnostic laboratories, contract manufacturing organizations, contract research organizations (CROs), and research institutes are the end-users of the oligonucleotide synthesis market.
- The rising usage of synthesized oligos in therapeutic applications, more government financing, and the expanding focus on customized medicine are all moving the oligonucleotide sector forward.
- The use of a wide range of oligonucleotide products such as probes and primers in COVID-19 research, as well as other activities by market companies, has helped researchers obtain a deeper understanding of the Coronavirus. As a result, COVID-19 has had a favorable impact on the oligonucleotide synthesis business.