How Does Dengue Fever Attack the Body?
Dengue fever is a viral infection that is transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. While some individuals may only experience mild symptoms, others can develop severe complications. Understanding how dengue fever attacks the body is crucial for effective management and treatment of the disease.
The Immune Response to Dengue Infection
When the dengue virus enters the human body through the bite of an infected mosquito, the immune system is activated to defend against the invader. The immune system consists of two main components:
->The Innate Immune System.
->The Adaptive Immune System.
The innate immune system provides immediate, non-specific protection against pathogens. It recognizes and responds to the dengue virus through various mechanisms, such as the production of interferons that limit the spread of the infection. However, the innate immune response alone is not sufficient to provide long-term immunity and causes platelets to decrease in dengue.
The adaptive immune system kicks in to provide specific and long-lasting protection against the dengue virus. It produces specialized cells, such as B cells and cytotoxic T cells, that target and eliminate the virus. B cells secrete antibodies, known as immunoglobulins, which bind to the dengue viral particles and neutralize them. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and kill the infected cells, preventing the virus from spreading further.
Dengue Viral Infection
When an infected mosquito bites a person, it injects the dengue virus into the bloodstream. The virus initially infects the skin cells called keratinocytes and a specialized immune cell called Langerhans cells. Langerhans cells detect the presence of pathogens and alert the immune system by displaying viral antigens on their surface. They then migrate to the lymph nodes, which serve as stations for immune cells to fight against infections.
As the dengue virus replicates inside Langerhans cells, it spreads to other cells and tissues, including the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and blood. This leads to a high level of the virus in the bloodstream, known as viremia. The immune response is activated to fight the infection, resulting in the production of antibodies, activation of the complement system, and the killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells.
How Does Dengue Virus Evade the Immune System?
The dengue virus has developed strategies to evade the immune system and establish a successful infection. One such strategy is the targeting and infection of monocytes and macrophages, which are important immune cells involved in pathogen clearance.
Instead of being destroyed by monocytes and macrophages, the dengue virus infects and replicates within these cells. Infected monocytes and macrophages then spread the virus throughout the body via the lymphatic system. This evasion tactic allows the virus to persist and cause widespread infection.
Factors Contributing to Severe Dengue Infections
Several factors can increase the risk of developing severe dengue infections. Chronic diseases such as asthma, sickle cell anemia, and diabetes mellitus can make individuals more susceptible to severe forms of the disease. Additionally, variations in human leukocyte antigen alleles, genes involved in immune system function, may increase the risk of severe dengue.
7 Warning Signs of Dengue Fever
1.Abdominal discomfort or sensitivity
3.Visible buildup of bodily fluids
4.Bleeding from mucous membranes
5.Fatigue or unease
6.Liver enlargement exceeding 2 cm
7.Elevated hematocrit with rapid platelet decline
Contact a healthcare provider immediately if one experiences symptoms of low platelet count in dengue or any signs and symptoms of dengue.
Ways to Protect From Dengue
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral illness, remains a significant health concern in many parts of the world. However, prevention is within our control through a combination of practical measures that can be incorporated into our daily routines. Here are some clear preventive steps:
1.Eliminate Stagnant Water: Aedes mosquitoes breed in stagnant water. Regularly empty and clean containers, flower vases, and gutters to remove potential breeding sites.
2.Use Mosquito Nets and Screens: Sleep under mosquito nets, and ensure windows and doors have screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering living spaces.
3.Protective Clothing: Wear long-sleeved clothing, especially during peak mosquito activity hours (early morning and late afternoon), to reduce exposed skin.
4.Mosquito Repellents: Apply mosquito repellents on exposed skin when going outdoors, ensuring a layer of protection against mosquito bites.
By adopting these simple yet effective measures, we can collectively contribute to curbing the spread of dengue and fostering healthier communities.
How is Dengue Virus Detected in the Human Body?
The NS1 antigen, a viral protein secreted by the dengue virus in the early stages of dengue viral infection, plays a pivotal role in diagnosis. Its presence in the serum or plasma of a dengue patient serves as a crucial diagnostic marker. Rapid detection of NS1 antigen or Dengue Virus Detection Kits aids healthcare professionals in swiftly confirming dengue infection, enabling timely interventions and appropriate patient care. This early identification is essential for effective management and treatment, contributing to better outcomes in combating dengue fever.
Contribution of Trivitron Healthcare
Trivitron Biocard® Dengue Ag (NS1) Rapid Test Kit from Trivitron Healthcare is a breakthrough in early dengue detection. It Swiftly identifies dengue antigen NS1 presence in serum or plasma with precision, providing healthcare providers with a vital tool for dengue test. Trust Trivitron for reliable diagnostics that redefine patient care.
Understanding how dengue fever attacks the body is essential for effective diagnosis, management, and treatment of the disease. The immune response plays a crucial role in combating the dengue virus, but the virus has evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune system. Factors such as dengue primary and secondary infections and certain genetic variations can contribute to the severity of the disease. Ongoing research aims to improve our understanding of dengue fever and develop better strategies for prevention and treatment.